Robust fractional order event-based control for optimised resource allocation in complex cyber-physical closed loop systems

Research grant awarded by UEFISCDI Romania www.uefiscdi.gov.ro, project code: PN-III-P1-1.1-TE-2016-1396, TE 65/2018

SUMMARY

Wireless sensors and actuators networks (WSAN) are frequently encountered nowadays in various domains that influence the safety, health and comfort of the entire population, this trend being regarded as one of the most critical technologies for building future cyber-physical systems. A key issue in WSAN control loops is that one of the crucial requirements consists in the reduction in the information exchanged between the agents in the control loop (sensors, controllers, actuators) and one of the most convenient strategies is to use event-based sampling and control . Also, time delay variations are frequently encountered in WSAN systems and must be robustly dealt with to avoid instability problems and to maintain desired closed loop performance. By allowing nonperiodic information updates in the control loop, resource allocation can be optimised and power consumption can be minimised. So far, event-based control approaches have been somewhat limited to PID controllers, with very few advanced control algorithms considered such as event-based model predictive control / H∞ robust control. The present project attempts to overcome this limit through the development of modern event-based control approaches, based on one of the newest trends in advanced process control: the fractional order controller. Thus, the main overall objective of the research grant is to develop robust and efficient control algorithms, by combining two novel concepts: event-based control solutions and fractional order control algorithms. The project aims at experimenting, testing and validating this original method, as well as on a novel design of fractional order controllers to robustly manage time delay variations. The major focus of the project is thus directed towards improving general public safety and comfort, by coming up with novel solutions for a robust behaviour of WSAN systems, despite changing environmental conditions, combined with an optimal resource allocation.

OBJECTIVES

The main overall objective of the research grant is to develop robust and efficient control algorithms, by combining two novel concepts: event-based control solutions and fractional calculus (FC). The project aims at experimenting, testing and the validation of original methods to be applied to processes where wired connections are practically impossible (WSAN systems as applications mentioned in Section C1). The major focus of the project is thus directed towards improving safety and comfort, by coming up with novel solutions for a robust behaviour of WSAN closed loop control systems, despite changing environmental conditions, combined with an optimal resource allocation. The specific objectives of the project are as follows: Objective 1: Development of a complete and up- to-date study of the state of the art regarding event-based PID controllers and FO PID control
algorithms for WSAN systems (characterized by variable time delays); Objective 2: Design of novel FO PID controllers for time delay processes based on an extended IMC methodology and an exact discrete-time implementation of resulting fractional order controllers (FOC); Objective 3: Development of event-based FO PID control rules; Objective 4: Highlighting the advantages of event- based FO PID controllers over event-based PID controllers in terms of closed loop robustness, as well as the advantages over standard FO PID controllers in terms of resource allocation.

PROJECT REPORTS

Stage 1 of the project (may-december 2018): three research activities have been scheduled for 2018, referring to a comprehensive study of state of the art regarding fractional calculus in control engineering applications and to a comprehensive study of existing FO PID controllers for time delay processes (WSAN systems). This later study has been concluded with a review paper regarding the most recent. The last research activity completed during this first stage of the project consists in a in depth study and analysis of newest trends in event-based PID control strategies. The fourth activity refers to the dissemination of the results (the resulting papers can be viewed below).

Raport_stiintific_2018_TE65_FazaI_final-min-min

Stage 2 of the project (january-december 2019): a series of research activities were carried out directed towards the development of novel FO-IMC control tuning strategies based on a new approximation method for dead-times. This approach is similar to one previously developed by the research team. The major focus is directed towards the extension of the novel design approach of fractional order PID controllers to event based control, using an event based PID algorithm and a fractional order filter, tuned according to the FO-IMC rules. Several numerical simulations were performed, for a wide range of processes, as well as experimental tests on a vertical take off and landing platform (modelled as a second order system with time delay).

Raport_stiintific_2019_TE65_FazaII_final-min-min

OVERALL PROJECT RESULTS

OVERALL SCIENTIFIC RESULTS

2018

  1. Muresan, C.I., Copot, C., Birs, I.R., De Keyser, R., Vanlanduit, S., Ionescu, C. (2018), Experimental validation of a novel auto-tuning method for a fractional order PI controller on an UR10 robot, Algorithms, 11(7), pp. 95, DOI: 10.3390/a11070095 (ISI Emerging citations Index)
  2. Birs, I.R., Muresan, C.I., Prodan, O., Folea, S.C., Ionescu, C.M. (2018), Structural vibration attenuation using a fractional order PD controller designed for a fractional order process, 3rd IFAC Conference on Advances in Proportional-Integral-Derivative Control PID 2018, IFAC-Papers Online, Vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 533-538, DOI: 10.1016/j.ifacol.2018.06.150 (ISI PROCEEDINGS)
  3. Muresan, C.I., De Keyser, R., Birs, I.R., Copot, D., Ionescu, C. (2018) Benchmark Challenge: a robust fractional order control autotuner for the Refrigeration Systems based on Vapor Compression, 3rd IFAC Conference on Advances in Proportional-Integral-Derivative Control PID 2018, IFAC-Papers Online, Vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 31-36, DOI: 10.1016/j.ifacol.2018.06.021 (ISI PROCEEDINGS)
  4. Birs, I.R Muresan, C.I., Folea, S., Prodan, O., Ionescu, C. (2018), Fractional order modeling and control of a carrier prototype for targeted drug delivery, Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Industrial Design Engineering (ICIDE 2018), ACM Digital Library, DOI: 10.1145/3290818.3290833, 21-23 September 2018, Phuket, Thailand (ISI PROCEEDINGS)

2019

  1. De Keyser, R., Muresan, C.I., Ionescu, C. (2019), Universal Direct Tuner for Loop Control in Industry, IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. no. 1, pp. 81308-81320, DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2921870, WOS:000474826900001 (ISI impact factor 4.098)
  2. Birs, I., Muresan, C.I., Nascu, I., Ionescu, C. (2019), A Survey of Recent Advances in Fractional Order Control for Time Delay Systems, IEEE Access, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 30951-30965, DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2902567 , WOS:000462469400001(ISI impact factor 4.098)
  3. Muresan, I. Birs, R. De Keyser (2019), An Improved Design Approach for Fractional Order Internal Model Controllers for Time Delay Systems, Mechatronics, under review (ISI impact factor 3.526)
  4. Juchem, J., Muresan, C.I.,De Keyser, R., Ionescu, C.M. (2019), Robust fractional-order auto-tuning for highly-coupled MIMO systems, Heliyon, Vol. 5, No. 7, paper e02154, DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02154, WOS:000478663100007 (ISI Emerging citations Index)
  5. De Keyser, R., Muresan, C.I. (2019), Validation of the KC Autotuning Principle on a Multi-Tank Pilot Process, 12th IFAC Symposium on Dynamics and Control of Process Systems, including Biosystems, Florianópolis – SC, Brazil, April 23-26, 2019, IFAC Papers Online, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 178-183, DOI: 10.1016/j.ifacol.2019.06.05, WOS:000473270600031 (ISI PROCEEDINGS)
  6. Birs, I., Copot, D., Muresan, C.I., De Keyser, R., Ionesc, C.M. (2019), Robust Fractional Order PI Control for Cardiac Output Stabilisation, 12th IFAC Symposium on Dynamics and Control of Process Systems, including Biosystems, Florianópolis – SC, Brazil, April 23-26, 2019, IFAC-PapersOnLine, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 994-999, DOI:10.1016/j.ifacol.2019.06.192, WOS:000473270600165 (ISI PROCEEDINGS)
  7. De Keyser, R., Muresan, C.I.(2019), Robust Estimation of a SOPDT Model from Highly Corrupted Step Response Data, European Control Conference, pp. 818-823, DOI:23919/ECC.2019.8796103, Naples, Italy, 25-28 June 2019 (in curs de indexareISI PROCEEDINGS)
  8. Muresan, C.I., Copot, C., Ionescu, C., De Keyser, R. (2019), Robust Fractional Order Control of LPV Dynamic Mechatronic Systems, The 15th IEEE International Conference on Control and Automation (IEEE ICCA 2019), July 16-19, 2019, Edinburgh, Scotland, accepted (in curs de indexare ISI PROCEEDINGS)
  9. Muresan, C.I., Birs, I., Darab, C., Prodan, O., De Keyser, R. (2019), Alternative Approximation Method for Time Delays in an IMC Scheme, The Aegean Conference on Electrical Machines and Power Electronics and Optimization of Electrical & Electronic Equipment Conference, Istanbul, Turkey, August 27-29 2019, accepted (in curs de indexare ISI PROCEEDINGS)
  10. De Keyser, R., Muresan, C.I. (2019), Experimental Validation of an Efficient Disturbance Rejection Method for Dead-Time Processes using Internal Model Control, 24th IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, DOI:1109/ETFA.2019.8869004, Zaragoza, Spain, September 10-13 2019 (in curs de indexare ISI PROCEEDINGS)
  11. Birs, I, Muresan, C.I.,Nascu, I., Ionescu, C. (2019), Design and Practical Implementation of a Fractional Order Proportional Integral Controller (FOPI) for a Poorly Damped Fractional Order Process with Time Delay, The 7th International Conference on Control, Mechatronics and Automation, Delft, Netherlands, November 6-8, 2019, accepted (in curs de indexare ISI PROCEEDINGS)
  12. Muresan, C.I., Birs, I., Prodan, O., Nascu, I., De Keyser, R. (2019), Approximation Methods for FO-IMC Controllers for Time Delay Systems, The 2nd International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Green Energy, Roma, E3S Web of Conferences, vol. 115, DOI:1051/e3sconf/201911501003, Italy, June 28-30, 2019 (OPEN ACCESS/ SCOPUS INDEXED)
  13. Birs, I., Muresan, C., An event based implementation of a fractional order controller on a scalable nanorobot, The European Control Conference, St. Petersburg, Russia, 12-15 May 2020, submitted (in curs de indexare ISI PROCEEDINGS
  14. Birs,I., Muresan, C., Nascu, I., de Keyser, R.. An event-based implementation of the KC autotuner for vertical take-off and landing control, The European Control Conference, St. Petersburg, Russia, 12-15 May 2020, submitted (in curs de indexare ISI PROCEEDINGS)

 

RESEARCH TEAM

Dr. Eng. Cristina I. Muresan – principal investigator

Dr. Eng. Clara Ionescu

Dr. Eng. Ovidiu Prodan

DR. Eng. Cosmin Darab

Eng. Isabela Birs (PhD student)